Note: Most pages under this heading are only available to registered members. Best way to join is to perform genetic genealogy testing and match other members. Otherwise, talk to the admins about starting a new branch if you are not matching others here but you have strong genealogical work already. See our How To Join page for more information.
The H600 Surname Project has DNA Groupings based upon matching Y Chromosome (aka yDNA) results from multiple, preferably distantly related, descendants in the Family Branches. The DNA Grouping solidifies a Patrilineal line where strong genealogical work exists that is now supported by matching DNA. ue to the stability of the Y Chromosome, this form of testing stretches much farther back than genealogical records or Autosomal SNP testing.
Three STR test results that match define an EKA Haplotype modal (that is, the likely STR values the EKA had). More people tested starts to define the minor variations in STR values and thus Haplotype signatures for more recent ancestors. Matching SNP values define the Haplogroup and solidify the matching Haplotype result. At the stems (or recent, nearer term branches) in the patrilineal lines, Autosomal testing is used to link those that are not on the patrilineal line. Often this requires they have an ancestor in the patrilineal line within the last 200 years.
yDNA SNP testing and the Haplogroups it defines are required to verify that yDNA STR Haplotype results are really matching. As such, we group our DNA Groupings pages by their major haplogroup branches. This helps us pull together common material on major Haplogroup branches into a single page as well. You can think of the major Haplogroup branches as being the grouping for Family Branches from ancient times thousands of years ago. This is the realm of population studies and anthropology but not covered or supported here.
Family Branches. Each DNA Grouping page has a volunteer coordinator who promotes the gathering of more information about the lineage through further DNA tests and expanded traditional genealogical research. More often than not though, "the tail wags the dog". Meaning, DNA Testing is showing disparate Family Branches should be in the same patrilineal line. So a next-level up Family Branches page is created to group existing, disparate branches and begin to track the study of how the ancestral lines merge further back in time. The DNA Grouping page shadowing this shell Family Branch page is then used to capture the matching DNA analysis and its further exploratory work. Family Branch pages are labeled Bnn. Their corresponding DNA Groupings page is labeled BnnDNA.
In some cases, when just a single individual has yDNA tested but there exists several hundred years of solid genealogical research, we may create the Family Branches page in hopes of recruiting and attracting more family members. But we will await for their to be a match before starting the corresponding DNA Groupings page here.
There are DNA testers listed in these groups that are not necessarily project members or current researchers in the Family Branches. Their results may be included without their active participation as they have been pulled from public sources or found with genealogical search methods. Often we have reached out and they may not have responded. We include them if their genealogical study body of work is public and has potential to help other members. Sometimes, these are the first members in a Family Branches page as researchers push their one-name study further into a surname-study effort.
To fully appreciate this section and its contents, you should be familiar with the Family Branches and Genetic Genealogy sections. The latter is where we cover our current work on genetic testing and how it tells us more about a family group. DNA Groupings detail the more in-depth, DNA match specific analysis of SNP and STR values found in the Y Chromosome that are more unique to members in a Family Branch. Genealogical implications of test results are folded back into the Family Branches page. The genetic information about a branch is covered in a page here. But realize, DNA results, just as with any genealogical resource, gives us clues to build a body of evidence in support of a posited theory. On their own, they usually mean little.
Note that we are just expanding our DNA analysis from exclusively working the patrilineal line (yDNA) to now include near-term (Autosomal or atDNA) matching of non-patrilineal line relatives. xDNA is simply lumped in with atDNA by testing companies but some unique information can be derived by analyzing those results separately. Autosomal testing often involves working backwards from a present individual on all their lines. yDNA only involves the patrilineal (male) line. To incorporate nearer-term, Autosomal SNP testing work in this project, post-1800 sub-branches of the patrilineal line are identified and a sub-page of the DNA Grouping page for a branch is created to report the work of the Autosomal study. The combination of many Autosomal clusters attached to various branches of a patrilineal line back to a common early ancestor forms the basis of a DNA Grouping in a surname family branch and is used to support the corresponding Family Branches page.
Access to the near term Autosomes DNA activity is limited to registered members of that particular subgroup; not just the patrilineal line group. This because it is dealing with living people and nearer term relatives. To be admitted as a registered member of an Autosomal group, you have to have a verified, matching DNA result to another member (or expected to have so and are recruited in by other members). The admin of each subgroup can assist you with verifying your match in order to facilitate your membership.
Matrilineal (mtDNA) testing is not normally very useful in a genealogical activity. But some value can be extracted to confirm matrilineal descendants as they both should share the mtDNA test result.
Phylogenetic Trees of HaplogroupsyDNA and mtDNA SNP testing has traditionally been used for the study and understanding of Haplogroups. The understanding of Haplogroups, or ancient populations, is in a constant flux. Especially since the introduction of genetic genealogy testing and citizen scientists getting into the fray. Historically, such studies were performed exclusively by University researchers (anthropologists and more recently population geneticists) with a focus on pushing back in time to early human groups. Citizen scientists have been more interested in nearer term connections and are beginning to close the gap to within genealogical time frame efforts; thus beginning to help individuals understand the 1,000 to 500 years ago gap most have in their work.
Haplogroups are identified by SNP value "signatures". Researchers attempt to order the likely time frame that the SNP changes occurred during human evolution. This order is represented as a branching phylogenetic tree with the root given a biblical-name reference of "Adam" for the Y Chromosome tree (or "Eve" for the matrilineal one given by mtDNA testing). Branches from there are defined by ancient SNP changes. The top level branching is historically identified by alphabetic letters. Originally, the branching below was then designated using alternating numbers and letters (i.e. the YCC long form). In a few cases, the second level branch (with a numeral and then sometimes letter designation) is important enough that it is treated like a "top level" alphabetic branch. For example, most talk of I1 and R1b as "top level" branch points. Often when using the newer YCC short form to identify a major branch point or terminal, the main SNP defining the branch / terminal is pre-pended by the "top-level" branch name from the older YCC long form. For example, R1b-P312 or even simply R-P312.
There are many Haplogroup trees available to compare and contrast these days. The ISOGG Tree has been the main tree used by non-academics for the last decade. ISOGG volunteers built their work from published, academic papers. But since the introduction of NGS testing, the analysis progress has been much faster than this activity can keep up with. So other sources are more current and heavily participated in. The ISOGG Tree uses the old style YCC long form which has been dropped by all others. The MTDNA Phylo Tree Authors have put out a simplified yDNA top-level Haplogroup tree with much of the major branching below on separate pages. They use the newer YCC short form as well.
Most group members have their yDNA SNP test done with FamilyTreeDNA, especially with their NGS BigY test. So many see their placement in the FamilyTreeDNA chart as a first step. But the FamilyTreeDNA chart is not open and available to all. It also only shows your path and not easily others. So many work with more open charts that are also accepting of participants results.
YFull is a newcomer that is based on NGS testing analysis; such as the BigY test from FamilyTreeDNA. It changes daily as users submit results for analysis. They are restructuring some of the more stable, upper parts of the tree that ISOGG and others have as yet to follow.. YFull also has a nice top level, single page tree like the MTDNA Phylo Tree Authors adopted.
A recent strong up-and-comer with a nice display is Alex Williamson's ytree which has started merging older efforts by a number of the FamilyTreeDNA R1b research groups that had been helping develop the ISOGG Tree. ytree only provides information about R1b-P312 branch and below. Although deep in the traditional Haplogroup tree, most white European men fall below the R1b-P312 branch point and thus in this tree.
Haplogroup study and understanding is really outside the scope of our work here. Members are encouraged to read online references and build a sub-page to their DNA Grouping to document and follow the current thinking, if interested, for their branch. It is not a focus nor expected support area otherwise. We are a genetic genealogy based surname study, not a genetic anthropological one.